Часы Swiss Army

Posted on by Онисим

Часы Swiss Army

Not to be confused with Swiss Guard.

"Swiss Army" redirects here. For the multi-function pocket knife, see Swiss Army knife.

Swiss Armed Forces
Service branchesArmy, Air Force
GeneralVacant in peacetime
DDPS MinisterSwiss Federal CouncilorGuy Parmelin
Chief of the Armed ForcesLt Gen Philippe Rebord
Military&#;age19 years of age for male compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary male and female military service;
Conscription19–34 years of age (obligatory for males only)
36 for subaltern officers, 52 for staff officers and higher
Available for
military service
1,&#;males, age&#;16–49 ( est.),
1,&#;females, age&#;16–49 ( est.)
Fit for
military service
1,&#;males, age&#;16–49 ( est.),
1,&#;females, age&#;16–49 ( est.)
Reaching military
age annually
48, males ( est.),
44,&#;females ( est.)
Active personnelc.()[1] (ranked 38th)
BudgetCHF billion (~US$ billion FY12)[2]
Percent of GDP% ()[3]

The Swiss Armed Forces (German: Schweizer Armee, French: Armée suisse, Italian: Esercito svizzero, Romanisch: Armada svizra) operates on land, in the air, and in international waters.

Under the country's militia system, professional soldiers constitute about 5 percent[citation needed] of the military and the rest are conscripts or volunteers aged 19 to 34 (in some cases up to 50). Because of Switzerland's long history of neutrality, the armed forces do not take part in conflicts in other countries, but it does participate in international peacekeeping missions. Switzerland is part of the NATO Partnership for Peace programme.[4]

The structure of the Swiss militia system stipulates that the soldiers keep their own personal equipment, including all personally assigned weapons, at home (until this also included ammunition[5]).

Compulsory military service applies to all male Swiss citizens, with women serving voluntarily. Males usually receive initial orders at the age of 18 for military conscription eligibility screening.

About two-thirds of young Swiss men are found suitable for service, while alternative service exists for those found unsuitable.[6] Annually, approximately 20, persons are trained in basic training for 18 weeks (23 weeks for special forces).

The reform "Army XXI" was adopted by popular vote in It replaced the previous model "Army 95", reducing manpower fromto aboutpersonnel,receiving periodic military training and 80, reservists who have completed their total military training requirements.[7]


Main article: Military history of Switzerland

The land component of the Swiss Armed Forces originated from the cantonal troops of the Old Swiss Confederacy, called upon in cases of external threats by the Tagsatzung or by the canton in distress.

In the federal treaty ofthe Tagsatzung prescribed cantonal troops to put a contingent of 2% of the population of each canton at the federation's disposition, amounting to a force of some 33, men.

The cantonal armies were converted into the federal army (Bundesheer) with the constitution of From this time, it was illegal for the individual cantons to declare war or to sign capitulations or peace agreements.

Paragraph 13 explicitly prohibited the federation from sustaining a standing army, and the cantons were allowed a maximum standing force of each (not including the Landjäger corps, a kind of police force).

Paragraph 18 declared the "obligation" of every Swiss citizen to serve in the federal army if conscripted (Wehrpflicht), setting its size at 3% of the population plus a reserve of one and one half that number, amounting to a total force of some 80,

The first complete mobilization, under the command of Hans Herzog, was triggered by the Franco-Prussian War in Inthe army was called in to crush a strike of workers at the Gotthard tunnel.

Four workers were killed and 13 were severely wounded.

Paragraph 19 of the revised constitution of extended the definition of the federal army to every able-bodied male citizen, swelling the size of the army (at least in theory) from underto more than , with population growth during the 20th century rising further to some million, the second largest armed force per capita after the Israeli Defence Forces.

A major manoeuvre commanded in by Ulrich Wille, a reputed Germanophile, convinced visiting European heads of state, in particular Kaiser Wilhelm II, of the efficacy and determination of Swiss defences.[8] Wille was subsequently put in command of the second complete mobilization inand Switzerland escaped invasion in the course of World War I.

Wille also ordered the suppression of the general strike (Landesstreik) with military force. Three workers were killed, and a rather larger number of soldiers died of the Spanish flu during mobilization.

Inthe army was called to suppress an anti-fascist demonstration in Geneva. The troops shot dead 13 demonstrators, wounding another This incident long damaged the army's reputation, leading to persistent calls for its abolition among left-wing politicians. In both the and the incidents, the troops deployed were consciously selected from rural regions such as the Berner Oberland, fanning the enmity between the traditionally conservative rural population and the urban working class.

The third complete mobilization of the army took place during World War II under the command of Henri Guisan (see also Switzerland during the World Wars). The Patrouille des Glaciers race, created to test the abilities of soldiers, was created during the war.

In the s and s, the armed forces were organised according to the "Armee 61" structure.

Sincethere have been several attempts to curb military activity or even abolish the armed forces altogether.

A notable referendum on the subject was held on 26 November and, although defeated, did see a significant percentage of the voters in favour of such an initiative.[9] However, a similar referendum, called for before, but held shortly after the September 11 attacks in in the US, was defeated by over 77% of voters.[10]

Inthe status of the army as a national icon was shaken by a popular initiative aiming at its complete dissolution (see: Group for a Switzerland without an Army) receiving % support.

This triggered a series of reforms and, inthe number of troops was reduced to("Armee 95"). Article of the constitution repeats that the army is "in principle" organized as a militia, implicitly allowing a small number of professional soldiers.

A second initiative aimed at the army's dissolution in late received a mere % support.[10] Nevertheless, the army was shrunk again intomen ("Armee XXI"), including the reserves.

Inthe Swiss Federal Assembly voted to further reduce the army frommen tomen, reducing the time of basic training from 21 weeks to 18, but also to increase the military budget by billion Swiss francs.[11]


Further information: Military ranks of the Swiss Armed Forces

The armed forces consist ofpeople on active duty (in Switzerland called Angehöriger der Armee, shortly AdA, engl.: Member of the Army), of which 4, are professionals, with the rest being conscripts or volunteers.[12] Women, for whom military service is voluntary, numbered 1, less than 1% of the total, but 25% of career soldiers.[12] Once decided to serve, they have the same rights and duties as their male colleagues, and they can join all services, including combat units.

Recruits are generally instructed in their native language; however, the small number of Romansh-speaking recruits are instructed in German.

In contrast to most other comparable armed forces, officer candidates are usually not career regulars: after seven weeks of basic training, selected recruits are offered the possibility of a cadre function. Officer candidate schools take place separately from NCOs training, but NCOs have the possibility of becoming officers later on.[13] There are currently 17, officers and 22, NCOs in the Swiss Armed Forces.[12] Those of higher rank serve for more time each year; an ordinary soldier may serve days over 30 years, while a high-ranking officer may serve 2, before retiring.

Each promotion requires more time, which is known as "paying your grade". Companies subsidize military training by continuing to pay their employees, who list their ranks and responsibilities on their résumés.[14]

High command[edit]

In peacetime, the armed forces are led by the Chief of the Armed Forces (Chef der Armee), who reports to the head of the Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports and to the Swiss Federal Council as a whole.

The current Chief of the Armed Forces is Lieutenant-General (Korpskommandant) Philippe Rebord. Lt-Gen Rebord replaced Lieutenant-General (Korpskommandant) André Blattmann on 1 January

In times of crisis or war, the Federal Assembly elects a full General (OF-9) as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces (Oberbefehlshaber der Armee).

The rank is distinct and particular, as it is associated exclusively with wartime fighting or a national crisis due to wartime fighting among the neighbours on the border.[14] In addition, in Switzerland the word General itself is distinct and particular, as the subordinate appointments of general-officer status omit the word itself.

Throughout Swiss history, there have only been 4 officers formally designated as General:[14]

In Switzerland, the word General is reserved for the wartime, or emergency, Commander-in-Chief, so the subordinate officers who would have had the title of 'general' in other armies have alternative designations to describe the appointment:

  • OF Korpskommandant or Commandant de corps
  • OF Divisionär or Divisionnaire
  • OF-6; Brigadier[14]

The distinctive feature of their rank insignia are traditionally stylized edelweissrank-insignia.

One exception, however, is that when Swiss officers are involved in peacekeeping missions abroad, they are often given temporary ranks that do not exist in the Swiss Army, to give them rank-styles readily understood by foreign officers. For example, the head of the Swiss delegation at the NNSC in Korea (see below) had a rank of major general.


Under "Armee 61" the Army was organised into Field Army Corps 1, 2, and 4, and Mountain Army Corps 3.

This structure was superseded by the "Armee 95" and thereafter the "Armee XXI" structures.

Since the Army XXI reform inthe basic structure of the Army has been reorganised in the following units: infantry brigades (2 and 5); mountain infantry brigades (9 and 12); armoured brigades (1 and 11).[12] Additionally two large reserve brigades (Infantry Brigade 7 and Mountain Brigade 10) exist. Four territorial divisions link the Army with the cantons by coordinating territorial tasks inside of their sector and are immediately responsible for the security of their regions, depending only on the decisions of the Federal Council.[20]

Army formations[edit]

The Swiss Army fields the following brigades:[21]

  • Mechanized Brigade 1
    • Command Support Battalion 1 (Bataillon d'aide au commandement 1)
    • Reconnaissance Battalion 1 (Bataillon d'exploration 1)
    • Tank Battalion 12 (Bataillon de chars 12)
    • Mechanized Battalion 17
    • Mechanized Battalion 18
    • Artillery Battalion 1
    • Armoured Engineer Battalion 1
  • Mechanized Brigade 4
    • Command Support Battalion 4
    • Reconnaissance battalion 4
    • Reconnaissance battalion 5
    • Artillery Battalion 10
    • Artillery Battalion 49
    • Bridge Engineer Battalion 26
  • Mechanized Brigade 11 (see de:Panzerbrigade 11)
    • Command Support Battalion 11
    • Reconnaissance battalion 11
    • Tank Battalion 13 (Panzerbataillon 13)
    • Mechanized Battalion 14
    • Mechanized battalion 29
    • Artillery Battalion 16 (Artillerie Abteilung 16)
    • Armoured Engineer Battalion 11

The four territorial divisions field additional Army units for local defense tasks:

  • Territorial Division 1 in Morges
    • Territorial Division Staff Battalion 1
    • Rifle battalion 1 (Bataillon de Carabiniers 1)
    • Mountain Infantry battalion 7 (Bataillon d'infanterie de montagne 7)
    • Infantry Battalion 13
    • Rifle battalion 14 (Bataillon de Carabiniers 14)
    • Infantry Battalion 19 (Bataillon d'infanterie 19)
    • Engineer Battalion 2
    • Emergency Rescue Battalion 1
    • Rescue Coordination Center 1
    • Patrouille des Glaciers Command
  • Territorial Division 2 in Kriens
    • Territorial Division Staff Battalion 2
    • Infantry battalion 11
    • Infantry Battalion 20
    • Infantry Battalion 56
    • Infantry Battalion 97
    • Engineer Battalion 6
    • Emergency Rescue Battalion 2
    • Rescue Coordination Center 2
  • Territorial Division 3 in Altdorf
    • Territorial Division Staff Battalion 3
    • Mountain Infantry Battalion 29
    • Mountain Infantry Battalion 30 (Battaglione fanteria montagna 30)
    • Mountain Infantry Battalion 48
    • Mountain Infantry Battalion 91
    • Engineer Battalion 9
    • Emergency Rescue Battalion 3
    • Rescue Coordination Center 3
  • Territorial Division 4 in St.


    • Territorial Division Staff Battalion 4
    • Mountain Rifle Battalion 6 (Gebirgsschützenbataillon 6)
    • Infantry Battalion 61
    • Infantry Battalion 65
    • Mountain Infantry Battalion 85
    • Engineer Battalion 23
    • Emergency Rescue Battalion 4
    • Rescue Coordination Center 4

Air Force[edit]

Main articles: Swiss Air Force and History of the Swiss Air Force

The Swiss Air Force has been traditionally a militia-based service, including its pilots, with an inventory of approximately aircraft whose lengthy service lives (many for more than 30 years) overlapped several eras.

However, beginning with its separation from the Army inthe Air Force has been downsizing; it now has a strength of approximately fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, and is moving towards a smaller, more professional force.

The primary front-line air-defence fleet consists of 30 F/A Hornets (34 aircraft were originally purchased, with three F/AD and one F/AC lost in crashes) organized into three squadrons (11, 17 and 18) along with 53 F-5 Tiger IIs (98 F-5E and 12 F-5F originally purchased).

In Octoberthe Swiss Hornet fleet reached the 50, flight hour milestone.[22]

In peacetime the Swiss Air Force does not maintain 24/7 operational readiness status, due to the limited budget and staff available. The Swiss Air Force is now working on extending the operational times, aiming to be maintaining readiness for two armed jet fighters round-the-clock in [23] The difficulty of defending Swiss airspace is illustrated by the mountainous character and the small size of the country; the maximum extension of Switzerland is &#;km, a distance that can be flown in a little over 20 minutes by commercial aircraft.

Furthermore, Switzerland's policy of neutrality means that they are unlikely to be deployed elsewhere (except for training exercises).

Intelligence gathering[edit]

Main article: Swiss intelligence agencies

The Swiss military department maintains the Onyxintelligence gathering system, similar to but much smaller than the international Echelon system.

The Onyx system was launched in in order to monitor both civil and military communications, such as telephone, fax or Internet traffic carried by satellite.

It was completed in late and currently consists of three interception sites, all based in Switzerland. In a way similar to Echelon, Onyx uses lists of keywords to filter the intercepted content for information of interest.

On 8 Januarythe Swiss newspaper Sonntagsblick (Sunday edition of the Blick newspaper) published a secret report produced by the Swiss government using data intercepted by Onyx.[citation needed] The report described a fax sent by the Egyptian department of Foreign Affairs to the Egyptian Embassy in London, and described the existence of secret detention facilities (black sites) run by the CIA in Central and Eastern Europe.

The Swiss government did not officially confirm the existence of the report, but started a judiciary procedure for leakage of secret documents against the newspaper on 9 January [citation needed]

Lakes flotilla[edit]

"Swiss Navy" redirects here.

For the Swiss Merchant Navy, see Merchant Marine of Switzerland.

Several sizeable lakes which lie across international borders are patrolled by a flotilla of military patrol boats. This maritime branch of the Army not only maintains the patrols but also serve in a search-and-rescue role.

During the Second World War, Switzerland fielded the Type 41 class of patrol boats, armed with an anti-tank gun (later replaced by 20mm auto-cannons) and dual machine guns.

Nine units were commissioned between and These boats were upgraded innotably receiving radars, radios and modern armament, and were kept in service into the s, the last being decommissioned in late [24]

The contemporary force utilises the Aquarius-class (Patrouillenboot 80) riverine patrol boats, which are operated by Motorboat Company 10 of the Corps of Engineers and which patrol lakes Geneva, Lucerne, Lugano, Maggiore and Constance.[25]

The term 'Admiral of the Swiss Navy' is sometimes used metaphorically to describe a self-important person but it is regarded as US Military slang and unused in Switzerland.[26] The lakes flotilla has no admiral, as it is only a company-sized unit of the Swiss Army.

See also: Brown-water navy


Main article: Conscription in Switzerland

Switzerland has mandatory military service for all able-bodied male citizens, who are conscripted when they reach the age of majority,[27] though women may volunteer for any position.[28] People determined unfit for service, where fitness is defined as "satisfying physically, intellectually and psychological requirements for military service or civil protection service and being capable of accomplishing these services without harming oneself or others",[29] are exempted from service but pay a 3% additional annual income tax until the age of 30, unless they are affected by a disability.[30] Almost 20% of all conscripts were found unfit for military or civilian service in ; the rate is generally higher in urban cantons such as Zurich and Geneva than in the rural ones.[31]Swiss citizens living abroad are generally exempted from conscription in time of peace[32] while dual citizenship by itself does not grant such exemption.[33]

On 22 Septembera referendum was held that aimed to abolish conscription in Switzerland.[34] With a turnout of % on this particular question, over 73% voted against eliminating conscription.


The prime role of the Swiss Armed Forces is Home Defence.

Switzerland is not part of any multinational war-fighting structure, but individual Armed Forces members do take part in international missions.

Peacekeeping overseas[edit]

Operating from a neutral country, Switzerland's army does not take part in armed conflicts in other countries. However, over the years, the Swiss army has been part of several peacekeeping missions around the world.

From tothe Swiss Army was present in Bosnia and Herzegovina with headquarters in Sarajevo.

Its mission, part of the Swiss Peacekeeping Missions, was to provide logistic and medical support to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), protection duties and humanitarian demining.

The mission was named SHQSU, standing for Swiss Headquarters Support Unit to BiH. It was composed of 50 to 55 elite Swiss soldiers under contract for six to 12 months. None of the active soldiers were armed during the duration of the mission.

The Swiss soldiers were recognized among the other armies present on the field by their distinctive yellow beret. The SHQSU is not the same as the more publicized Swisscoy, which is the Swiss Army Mission to Kosovo.

Switzerland is part of the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission (NNSC), which was created to monitor the armistice between North and South Korea.

Since the responsibilities of the NNSC have been much reduced over the past few years, only five people are still part of the Swiss delegation, which is located near the Korean DMZ.[35][36][37]

Military and civil defence[edit]

After World War II, Switzerland began building homes with 40&#;cm-thick concrete ceilings that might survive firebombing of the type that destroyed Hamburg and Dresden.

In the s they began constructing radiation and blast shelters that could survive one to three bars of pressure from a nuclear explosion.[38] Building codes require blast shelters, which are said to be able to accommodate % of the Swiss population.[39] Small towns have large underground parking garages that can serve as sealed community shelters.[38] There are also hospitals and command centres in such shelters, aimed at keeping the country running in case of emergencies.

Every family or rental agency has to pay a replacement tax to support these shelters, or alternatively own a personal shelter in their place of residence;[40] many private shelters serve as wine cellars and closets.[38]

Thousands of tunnels, highways, railroads, and bridges are built with tank traps and primed with demolitioncharges to be used against invading forces; often, the civilian engineer who designed the bridge plans the demolition as a military officer.

Hidden guns are aimed to prevent enemy forces from attempting to rebuild.[14] Permanent fortifications were established in the Alps, as bases from which to retake the fertile valleys after a potential invasion. They include underground air bases that are adjacent to normal runways; the aircraft, crew and supporting material are housed in the caverns.

However, a significant part of these fortifications was dismantled between the s and during the "Army 95" reformation.

The most important fortifications are located at Saint-Maurice, Gotthard Pass area and Sargans. The fortification on the left side of the Rhône at Saint-Maurice is no longer used by the army since the beginning of the s.

The right side (Savatan) is still in use.

During the Cold War the military expected that any invasion would likely come from the northeast, as the Soviet Union associated the country with NATO despite its stated neutrality.[14] The Swiss government thought that the aim of an invasion would be to control the economically important transport routes through the Swiss Alps, namely the Gotthard, the Simplon and Great St.

Bernard passes, because Switzerland does not possess any significant natural resources.


Main article: List of equipment of the Swiss Armed Forces

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^DDPS Statistics Federal Department of Defense, Civil Protection and Sport (French)
  2. ^Sipri: Data by CountryStockholm International Peace Research Institute, Retrieved 29 March
  3. ^The World Factbook - SwitzerlandCentral Intelligence Agency, Retrieved 29 March
  4. ^Frontières entre police et armée, Cahier du GIPRI, n° 2,
  5. ^Soldiers can keep guns at home but not ammoSwissinfo
  6. ^"Zwei Drittel der Rekruten diensttauglich (Schweiz, NZZ Online)".

    Retrieved 23 February &#;

  7. ^Armeezahlen vulcan-moskva.tk (German)
  8. ^World War I–Preparation in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  9. ^"L'évolution de la politique de sécurité de la Suisse" (in French).

    NATO. Retrieved 12 July &#;

  10. ^ ab"Volksabstimmung vom 2. Dezember " (in German). Federal Chancellery. Retrieved 12 July &#;
  11. ^"Army Reforms Given Green Light by Parliament". Swissinfo. March 7, Retrieved March 31, &#;
  12. ^ abcd"The basic organisation of the Swiss Armed Forces"(PDF).

    Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports. Retrieved 12 July &#;

  13. ^"L'instruction des cadres" (in French). # Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports. Retrieved 12 July &#;
  14. ^ abcdefMcPhee, John ().

    "La Place de la Concorde Suisse-I". The New Yorker. p.&#; Retrieved 22 July &#;

  15. ^Langendorf, Jean-Jacques (7 November ). "Dufour, Guillaume-Henri" (in German). Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Retrieved 16 January &#;
  16. ^Wyrsch-Ineichen, Paul: Die Schwyzer Truppen im Büsinger-Handel von in Mitteilungen des historischen Vereins des Kantons Schwyz
  17. ^Aktivdienst in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  18. ^Rapport sur l’armement et la campagne de .

    Revue militaire Suisse

  19. ^Toast à la Patrie. Revue militaire Suisse
  20. ^"Grandes unités" (in French). Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports. Retrieved 12 July &#;
  21. ^Swiss Parliament. "Verordnung über die Strukturen der Armee"(PDF). Swiss Government. Retrieved 9 April &#;
  22. ^"Swiss Hornets reach 50, flight hours milestone".

    Military Aviation Publications. 24 October Retrieved 14 July &#;

  23. ^"Umsetzung des Projekts Luftpolizeidienst 24 steht bevor" [Implementation of Project Air Policing 24 is Imminent].

    vulcan-moskva.tk (in German). Swiss Federal Council. 1 December Retrieved 19 July &#;

  24. ^Information note of Spiez at the Swiss Museum of Transport
  25. ^"Lehrverband Genie/Rettung – Truppen".

    Swiss Land Forces. Retrieved 19 July &#;

  26. ^Dickson, Paul (). War Slang: American Fighting Words & Phrases Since the Civil War (3rd ed.). Dover Publications. p.&#; ISBN&#;&#;
  27. ^"Conscrits et recrues" (in French).

    Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports. Retrieved 10 July &#;

  28. ^"Femmes dans l'armée" (in French). Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports.

    Retrieved 10 July &#;

  29. ^"Définition de l'aptitude au service" (in French). Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports. Retrieved 10 July &#;
  30. ^"Ordonnance sur la taxe d'exemption de l'obligation de servir" (in French).

    Federal Authorities of the Swiss Confederation. Retrieved 10 July &#;

  31. ^"Les chiffres du recrutement en " (in French).

    Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports. Retrieved

A Swiss Army exercise inpainting by Joseph Clemens Kaufmann
Veterans' traditional Cavalry squadron presenting the uniform of
Structure of the Swiss Army
Infantry squad and Mowag Piranha during presentation
Swiss soldier in combat uniform during house search demonstration in Thun
Cougar Helicopter firing decoy flares
Cougar AS T Swiss Air Force rescue exercise
Camouflaged cannons and fortifications near Furka Pass in the Gotthard region

Только от нашего сайта:

Специальные условия


Leave a Reply

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *